Ce que la France doit aux francs-maçons (FIRST DOCUMENT) (French Edition)

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In particular, systematic observation of red sediment on the surface of the pieces suggested that they belonged to the one geo-archaeological unit that presents the same colouring.

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This unit corresponds to the first Early Aurignacian level, also identified during the previous excavations. In agreement with this hypothesis, cut marks were registered on one of the perforated fox canines, testifying to the acquisition of the teeth on a fresh carcass. Concomitantly, evidence of fox exploitation was exclusively identified in the Early Aurignacian occupation upper US Moreover, the marked similarities in shape between all the ivory beads, including the one found in stratigraphic position, indicates that they all belong to the Early Aurignacian occupation.

At this point in the study, inferences on the cultural affinities of the Early Aurignacians that occupied the site with other groups were researched. By comparing data from the personal ornaments with other categories of material found in the Early Aurignacian lower level, a regional contrast appears between raw material procurement strategies and the stylistic affinity of bead type association. Although mainly local raw materials were used for lithic industry on the site, exogenous siliceous raw materials used in the Early Aurignacian lithic industries were imported from the north of the Poitou region.

It highlights a geographic contrast between the symbolic and economic spheres developed by the Aurignacians who occupied the site. While the bead-type association may reflect south-western affinities, the economic sphere is developed around a north-eastern area.


The marginal position of the site in regard to South-Western France, and the interface that constitutes the Poitou region between two different economic territories highlights the large-scale diffusion of personal ornamentation traditions in Western Europe during the Early Aurignacian. This diffusion appears to be unrelated to the settlement dynamics resulting from subsistence constraints.

Partager le produit sur :. Its presence, even minor, is a strong marker and the assemblages containing this kind of production are systematically attributed to the Northwest European Technocomplex Depaepe, However, its frequency in the assemblages is rarely considered although it is far from being identical. The question of its status and frequency in relation to other production modes should be addressed.

To explain the representativeness of blade production in Mousterian assemblages, we have examined its frequency in different archaeological assemblages.

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These assemblages were chosen because blade production varies quite significantly between them. The industry in level D at Soindres is exclusively laminar i. Finally, level C at Soindres, the upper level at Auteuil and Villiers-Adam show only the importation of rare blades in the assemblages ca.

Indeed, some sites appear to be "producers" and "exporters" of blades, while others are "importers" or "consumers'. These observations lead us to propose interpretative hypotheses concerning the space occupation mode during this period. Binford This hypothesis, while attractive, cannot be confirmed as is, the main pitfall being the contemporaneity of the sites, which has not been conclusively demonstrated.

However, it has the merit of highlighting the organization of space and the high degree of mobility of artefacts and thus probably of humans during the Early Weichselian in the Paris Basin.

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This observation is even more valid for more recent periods, the Lower and Middle Pleniglacial of the Weichselian, during which the organization of space appears to be entirely different. Indeed, although these periods are less well documented than the First Weichselian Glacial, the lithic assemblages are not only less diversified but appear especially small and more circumscribed in space. These observations, although they need to be developed and clarified, particularly given the rate of discovery of MIS 4 and 3 sites, currently demonstrate differences in the occupation of space in the Paris Basin during the recent phases of the Middle Palaeolithic.

We are thus tempted to propose the hypothesis that blade production during the Weichselian may have been a response to the singular organization of knappers of the period, in line with a high degree of mobility. Ils le peuvent ; le font-ils tous? Telles sont les questions que cet article se propose d'aborder. Mais il y a plus que cela. Mais s??? Comment expliquer un tel acharnement didactique et romanesque alors qu'il ne repose sur aucune base scientifique? By the beginning of the second half of the 20th century, nobody had disputed for at least fifty years the fact that prehistoric art existed.

It could thus legitimately be represented in education and in fiction. Textbooks, like novels, comic strips or the cinema, could fearlessly grasp a subject now accepted by scientists and known to all. They could do it; do they all do it? What image s do they give?

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Those are the questions that this paper proposes to tackle. Pleistocene art is not treated in the same manner by all the media. It is practically ignored by the comic strip, rarely treated by the film industry; only education and, especially, literature, grant it a place. Both the latter make it possible to understand what prehistoric art is, and what it represents in the eyes of the French living in the second half of the 20th century.

Of all the art forms, parietal art "paintings and engravings" is by far the most represented in textbooks and novels. It is prehistoric art par excellence. It is true that it is a form providing the most evidence of its existence. Moreover, it is evidence whose intelligibility is only equalled by its irrefutability. Novelists and textbook authors know very well that they take no risks with this art: their readers will follow them and understand them extremely well.

There is however more to it than that.

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If painting is so frequently present in the representation of prehistory, it is because it arouses admiration. It cannot be the subject of an insipid, strictly descriptive, speech. Emotion, a communicative emotion, has to intervene. Paintings and sculptures can be chosen by novelists and textbook authors for other reasons. Describing a drawing on a wall or a man-made statue is easy for these authors. There is no need to invent. It suffices for them to visit caves and museums or, even more easily, to open any work devoted to the subject and to substitute their words for the ancient image.

By doing so, they know that they do not take any risk in comparison with science and cannot thus be criticized or taxed with anachronism by prehistorians. They do nothing but lay down on paper what prehistoric populations engraved on ivory or drew on the rock.

However, in the description of parietal paintings novelists can find a satisfaction other than that of being worthy spokesmen of prehistorians. They can supplant them, giving explanations where scientists must remain silent, in particular with regard to painted hands. Prehistoric art, as it is presented in literature and especially by schools throughout the second half of the 20th century, is above all an animal art. Novelists and textbook authors thus follow the prehistorians accurately, as they follow them in the choice of the animals represented.

Whatever the decade, the animals most represented in novels and textbooks are thus, more or less, those proposed by prehistorians: bison, horse and mammoth. Species considered by the scientists as negligible in the prehistoric bestiary meet the same fate in schools and in literature. There is thus perfect adequacy, in this field, between research and the representation of prehistory.

Parietal art fascinates, by its beauty, its perfection which still surprises insofar as it is considered as dating from a time when humanity was??? But while it has fascinated practically since its discovery, it intrigues just as much. The same nagging question has been repeated ever since Boucher de Perthes: why? Education and literature astonish by their prudence.

Both only venture very seldom to formulate assumptions on the significance of parietal art. Nonetheless, a minority of textbooks and novels try to explain why men painted in the centre of the earth. The dominant explanation consists of associating art with magic for hunting.

However, this theory has been widely dropped at least since the s. How can such didactic and romantic perseverance be explained, when it does not rest on any scientific basis? It must be recognized that, although obsolete, such a concept is extremely practical for teachers: they are sure to be understood. There is a last reason, common to both media. Painting animals the better to kill them is a form of revenge of man over animal.

Through the magic of art the animal, as much feared as coveted, became a thing for prehistoric man. By bringing about the reification of animals, art ensured Cro-Magnon??? The world of prehistory, as it exists in textbooks or novels of the second half of the 20th century, is a world of beauty. Of course, that is scientific reality, but the insistence of textbooks and literature, among other media, allows other explanations to be glimpsed.

In a world of dangers, in a world where very often Man is the worst enemy of Man, he is able to produce beauty. We must maintain confidence, trust in Man: he can be something other than a danger for his fellow men.

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Education and fiction sense vaguely that they must make room for the earliest art because, in a world of doubt, of concern, even, very often, of despair, it invites us to rediscover who we are through what we were, to rediscover our profound humanity. It invites us, quite simply, to keep faith in ourselves. Elles ne livrent pas de mobilier datant, si ce n'est quelques tessons protohistoriques en surface qui datent leur comblement final.

Guide Ce que la France doit aux francs-maçons (FIRST DOCUMENT) (French Edition)

Elles ne livrent, au diagnostic, aucun mobilier datant. As a result of recent work in northern France, "slot pits" have become an important research issue. These pits are large, deep and narrow, with a V or Y-shaped section. They are often isolated features, containing few artefacts. Although the pits have been interpreted in many ways, three hypotheses can be retained: craft pits, ritual pits or hunting traps.

The latter hypothesis is often put forward, in the Champagne-Ardenne region, to explain the recurrent presence in the pits of articulated wild animal skeletons, as well as the absence of contemporary settlements close to the hundred or so pits that have already been recorded. This hypothesis implies an arrangement of the pits in groups. However, in Champagne-Ardennes there are few examples of such groups and most of the pits are isolated features.

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During an archaeological evaluation on this site, at some distance from any river, a group of at least ten slot pits was discovered. These features do not display any pattern and their orientation varies. Two of them were investigated: they are quite large, narrow and deep, with many stratified layers visible in section. Two kinds of fill could be distinguished: a silty, homogeneous upper level and a lower part with alternating chalk and silt layers.